Tricolored cat resting on a table.

Nasal Foreign Bodies

Occasionally, foreign bodies can gain entrance into the nasal passageways of cats via the mouth, causing extreme irritation and rhinitis or sinusitis. The chief culprits in this category seem to be blades of grass, which is not unusual since many dogs and cats love to chew on vegetation. Pets with nasal foreign bodies will sneeze …

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Vet checking a black and white cat with a stethoscope.

Cat Rhinitis

Inflammation involving the nasal passages of dogs and cats is termed rhinitis. The hallmark clinical signs seen with a case of rhinitis include sneezing and nasal discharge. Causes of rhinitis include bacterial infections, nasal tumors, trauma, and foreign bodies. In addition, the fungal organism Aspergillus fumigatus can invade the bones and tissues constituting the nasal …

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Tricolored cat resting in her basket.

Cat’s Respiratory System

The respiratory system works in conjunction with the circulatory system to provide oxygen to and to remove carbon dioxide from the body tissues. Oxygen is the driving force behind all chemical reactions that occur internally. Obviously, life could not exist without it. As a result, the function of all body systems, including the respiratory system …

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Cat resting on the carpet.

Bleeding Disorders

Whenever an injury or illness compromises a blood vessel and leads to bleeding out of that vessel, a remarkable mechanism or chain reaction begins within the body in an effort to stop the leakage of blood from the damaged vessel and prevent the individual from bleeding to death. This mechanism is known as hemostasis. When …

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Two cats eating from a plate.


Anemia is defined as an overall reduction in the number of red blood cells within the bloodstream relative to normal levels within that pet. This reduction can occur from a number of processes, including an increased destruction or decreased production of red blood cells within the body. The overall consequence of anemia is the inability …

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Orange cat playing with a toy.

Arterial Thromboembolism

Cats afflicted with cardiomyopathy suffer from impaired circulation, which in turn can lead to a condition known as arterial thromboembolism. This disorder is characterized by large blood clots that form within the left side of the heart and pass into circulation, only to lodge within one or more blood vessels within the body, usually at …

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Kitten with blue eyes inside a pair of jeans.

Allergies and Autoimmune Disease

Both allergies and autoimmune diseases are characterized by an overactive immune system that can irritate or damage its host’s own tissues in response to an antigen invasion within the body. For example, atopic (allergic) dermatitis in dogs and cats results from an overactive immune response to inhaled pollens. Lupus erythematosus and pemphigus are two autoimmune …

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Tricolored cat inside a box.


As pointed out previously, the immune system is a complicated and delicately balanced system that performs a vital function within the body. If this balance is disrupted, serious trouble can develop. A suppressed immune system leaves the body wide open to invasion by foreign organisms and cancer cells. This immunosuppression can occur secondarily to viral …

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